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Title

Antigen Presentation After Stroke

AuthorsMiró-Mur, Francesc; Urra, Xabier; Gallizioli, Mattia; Chamorro, Ángel; Planas, Anna M.
KeywordsStroke
Adaptive immunity
Brain antigens
Inflammation
Innate immunity
Issue DateOct-2016
PublisherSpringer
CitationNeurotherapeutics 13(4): 719-728 (2016)
AbstractStroke induces a local inflammatory reaction and a plethora of innate immune responses in the brain where antigen-presenting cells become prominent. However, to date, it is still unclear whether antigen presentation is relevant to the neuropathological and functional outcome of stroke. Stroke does not trigger overt autoimmune reactions, but neural antigens have been found in lymphoid tissues of patient with stroke and it is unknown whether they promote tolerance or immune reactions that under certain conditions might contribute to the functional worsening observed in some patients. Autoantibodies to neural molecules have also been reported in patients with stroke, but the subclass of antibodies is important for their function, and the contribution of such findings to stroke outcome is not yet clear. Notably, stroke induces immunodepression highlighted by a transient lymphopenia, lymphoid organ atrophy, and monocyte deactivation. While these effects might reduce the chances of autoreactivity, they increase the risk of infection in patients with stroke and most frequently in those with severe stroke. Therefore any potential brain protective effect of stroke-induced immunodepression by attenuating or preventing lymphocyte-mediated brain damage is confounded by stroke severity and an increased incidence of infections. Systemic inflammation due to a number of comorbidities that are frequent in patients with stroke is also associated to a poor outcome. Herein, we review some relevant findings regarding the identification of neural antigens in stroke and discuss their potential contribution to the functional outcome of stroke.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-016-0469-8
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/148591
DOI10.1007/s13311-016-0469-8
Identifiersdoi: 10.1007/s13311-016-0469-8
issn: 1878-7479
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