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Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease in children: Underlying clinical conditions, and immunological and microbiological characteristics

AuthorsAlsina, Laia; Basteiro, Maria G.; Paz, Hector D. de; Iñigo, Melania; Sevilla, Mariona F. de; Triviño, Miriam; Juan, Manel; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen
Issue Date4-Mar-2015
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 10(3): e0118848 (2015)
Abstract[Purpose] Clinical, immunological and microbiological characteristics of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children were evaluated, differentiating relapse from reinfection, in order to identify specific risk factors for both conditions.
[Methods] All patients <18 years-old with recurrent IPD admitted to a tertiary-care pediatric center from January 2004 to December 2011 were evaluated. An episode of IPD was defined as the presence of clinical findings of infection together with isolation and/or pneumococcal DNA detection by Real-Time PCR in any sterile body fluid. Recurrent IPD was defined as 2 or more episodes in the same individual at least 1 month apart. Among recurrent IPD, we differentiated relapse (same pneumococcal isolate) from reinfection.
[Results] 593 patients were diagnosed with IPD and 10 patients died. Among survivors, 23 episodes of recurrent IPD were identified in 10 patients (1.7%). Meningitis was the most frequent form of recurrent IPD (10 episodes/4 children) followed by recurrent empyema (8 episodes/4 children). Three patients with recurrent empyema caused by the same pneumococcal clone ST306 were considered relapses and showed high bacterial load in their first episode. In contrast, all other episodes of recurrent IPD were considered reinfections. Overall, the rate of relapse of IPD was 0.5% and the rate of reinfection 1.2%. Five out of 7 patients with reinfection had an underlying risk factor: cerebrospinal fluid leak (n = 3), chemotherapy treatment (n = 1) and a homozygous mutation in MyD88 gene (n = 1). No predisposing risk factors were found in the remainder.
[Conclusions] recurrent IPD in children is a rare condition associated with an identifiable risk factor in case of reinfection in almost 80% of cases. In contrast, recurrent IPD with pleuropneumonia is usually a relapse of infection.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118848
Identifiersdoi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118848
issn: 1932-6203
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