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Designing micro- and mesoporous carbon networks by chemical activation of organic resins

AuthorsGomis Berenguer, Alicia ; García González, Raquel; Mestre, Ana S.; Ovín Ania, María Concepción
KeywordsMesoporous polymeric resins
Carbon xerogels
Chemical activation
Impregnation methodology
Textural characterization
Issue Date15-Dec-2016
CitationAdsorption 23(2): 303–312 (2017)
AbstractCarbon xerogels with ultrahigh micro- and mesopore volumes were synthesized from the activation of polymeric resins prepared by sol–gel polycondensation of resorcinol/formaldehyde mixtures in basic medium and subcritical drying. Various activating conditions (e.g., agent, temperature, impregnation conditions) were used and it was found that the textural features of the resulting carbon xerogels are linked to the experimental procedure of the activation reaction to promote the porosity development. The shrinkage and structural collapse of the fragile resins typically obtained upon annealing at high temperatures (during carbonization and/or physical activation) is suppressed when the impregnation of the chemical activating agent is performed under controlled conditions. If the alkaline reagent (either KOH or K2CO3) is put in contact with the resin by wet impregnation (liquid/solid); under such conditions, the intimate contact between both compounds allows the formation of microporosity during the activation along with the enlargement and/or preservation of the mesoporosity of the pristine resin. Furthermore, the chemical activation via wet impregnation allows the combination of high surface areas and the preservation (even higher development) of the mesoporosity created during the synthesis of the resin. The effect of the impregnation method was found highly dependent of the reagent and activation temperature, highlighting the possibility to design micro-mesoporous carbon xerogels at low temperatures with a subtle control of the activation conditions.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10450-016-9851-4
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