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Molecular and genetic basis of grapevine somatic variation: Applications in the study of gene biological function and breeding

AutorMartínez-Zapater, José M.
Palabras claveChromosomal reorganizations
Transposable elements
Clonal selection
Somatic variation
Genomic tools
Fecha de publicaciónjul-2014
Citación11th International Conference on Grapevine Breeding and Genetics (2014)
ResumenSomatic genetic variation can contribute to phenotypic variation in perennial plant species. This is particularly relevant in crop species like grapevine, which includes cultivars vegetatively propagated for centuries. Phenotypic variation among lines and clones derived from the same original zygote results from somatic mutations and epimutations that specifically affect different cells and cell layers of the plant and that, in many cases, are stably maintained through vegetative propagation. Mutations in the L2 cell layer, which gives rise to gametes, can be transmitted to the next sexual generation. Somatic variation has been described for many conspicuous leaf, cluster and berry grapevine traits, with higher frequency in old classical cultivars or in cultivars that are widely cultivated. Given the common use of cuttings in the propagation of grapevine since ancient times, somatic variation has likely participated in the progressive improvement and diversification of domesticated genotypes. In fact, it provides genetic variation for clonal selection, contributing to the adaptation of elite wine cultivars to new production and quality requirements. Current genome derived tools can help to understand the molecular basis of somatic variation. In the last years, several reports have identified the causal mutations in several somatic variants from different cultivars. These mutations fall into three main groups: point mutations, transposon insertions and chromosomal reorganizations. Moreover, most somatic variants analyzed to date share characteristic common features: i) they display dominant phenotypes caused by gain of function alleles in single genes; ii) similar somatic variants can repeatedly appear in the same or in different genetic backgrounds as a result of independent mutations in the same genes; and iii) phenotypes can differ depending on the cell layers carrying the mutations. We will discuss the possibilities of this sort of genetic variation in cultivar improvement and in the study of gene biological function.
DescripciónTrabajo presentado en la 11th International Conference on Grapevine Breeding and Genetics, celebrada en Pekín del 29 de julio al 2 de agosto de 2014.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/147044
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