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Lead bioavailability and bioaccessibility in sediments from wetlands with different hunting management in Tuscany (Italy)

AuthorsFortino, S.; Martínez-Haro, Mónica ; Mateo, Rafael
Issue Date2012
CitationSETAC 6th World Congress/SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting (2012)
AbstractLead (Pb) shot spent over wetlands causes Pb poisoning in waterfowl, which confuse it with grit for grinding function in the gizzard. Although often incorrectly regarded as inert, once dispersed in the environment, Pb shot undergoes a slow transformation into various molecular species that diffuse more readily in the environment and increase the bioavailability of the metal. Waterfowl species, which for their feeding habits probe into the sediment in search of food can steadily be exposed to Pb through the unintentional ingestion of contaminated sediment. In this study we investigate the relative bioavailability and bioaccessibility of Pb in sediments from two Italian wetlands “Diaccia-Botrona”(costal wetland) and “Padule di Fucecchio”(inland marsh) where previous studies showed high Pb levels. Sediment was sampled from areas with different degree of Pb shot pellet densities in each wetland, including shooting ranges and hunting estates and natural reserves. The relative Pb bioavailability was evaluated using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure, whereas the relative avian Pb bioaccessibility was estimated by using an “in vitro”simulation of the gizzard-intestine system. Pb partitioning obtained with BCR procedure showed a similar pattern for “Diaccia-Botrona”and “Padule di Fucecchio”. Percentage of total Pb concentration in sediment were less than 6% in the fraction 1 “acid extractable”with exchangeable and carbon bound metal, about 72-80% in the fraction 2 “reducible”with iron manganese oxide/hydroxide associated metal, about 4.25-16% in the fraction 3 “oxidisable”with metal bound to sulfide and organic matter, and about 3.5-18.6% in the fraction 4 “residual”with metal in the mineral phase. Despite of the similar pattern of BCR partitioning of Pb in the two wetlands, results of “in vitro”simulation showed percentages of bioaccessible Pb in gizzard phase (pH 1.5) two order of magnitude higher for “Padule di Fucecchio”than for “Diaccia-Botrona”in both the shooting ranges (14% and 0.18%, respectively) and natural reserve areas (10.6% and 0.10%, respectively). Due to the non-acidic conditions of the intestinal phase (pH 6.5), final Pb bioaccessibility were below of detection limits in both study areas. According to these results, direct ingestion of Pb shot pellets can represent a higher risk for birds than the unintentional ingestion sediment contaminated by the disaggregated pellets in heavily hunter areas.
DescriptionResumen del trabajo presentado al 6th SETAC World Congress and SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, celebrados en Berlin (Alemania) del 20 al 24 de mayo de 2012.-- et al.
Appears in Collections:(IREC) Comunicaciones congresos
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