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Evolutionary functional elaboration of the Elovl2/5 gene family in chordates

AuthorsMonroig, Óscar ; Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Navarro, Juan Carlos ; Hontoria, Francisco ; Ruivo, Raquel; Santos, Miguel M.; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Tocher, Douglas R.; Castro, L. Filipe C.
Issue Date9-Feb-2016
PublisherNature Publishing Group
CitationScientific Reports 6: 20510 (2016)
AbstractThe biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) provides an intriguing example on how multi-enzymatic cascades evolve. Essential LC-PUFA, such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), can be acquired from the diet but are also endogenously retailored from C precursors through consecutive elongations and desaturations catalyzed, respectively, by fatty acyl elongase and desaturase enzymes. The molecular wiring of this enzymatic pathway defines the ability of a species to biosynthesize LC-PUFA. Exactly when and how in animal evolution a functional LC-PUFA pathway emerged is still elusive. Here we examine key components of the LC-PUFA cascade, the Elovl2/Elovl5 elongases, from amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, the sea lamprey, a representative of agnathans, and the elephant shark, a basal jawed vertebrate. We show that Elovl2 and Elovl5 emerged from genome duplications in vertebrate ancestry. The single Elovl2/5 from amphioxus efficiently elongates C and C and, to a marked lesser extent, C LC-PUFA. Lamprey is incapable of elongating C substrates. The elephant shark Elovl2 showed that the ability to efficiently elongate C PUFA and thus to synthesize DHA through the Sprecher pathway, emerged in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. Our findings illustrate how non-integrated >metabolic islands> evolve into fully wired pathways upon duplication and neofunctionalization.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20510
Identifiersissn: 2045-2322
Appears in Collections:(IATS) Artículos
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