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Title

Toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Gyps vultures: a new threat from ketoprofen

AuthorsNaidoo, Vinny; Taggart, Mark A. ; Cuthbert, Richard
KeywordsGyps
Toxicity
Vultures
Diclofenac
NSAIDs
Ketoprofen
Issue Date2010
PublisherRoyal Society (Great Britain)
CitationBiology Letters 6(3): 339-341 (2010)
AbstractThree Gyps vulture species are on the brink of extinction in South Asia owing to the veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Carcasses of domesticated ungulates are the main food source for Asia's vultures and birds die fromkidney failure after consuming diclofenaccontaminated tissues.Here, we report on the safety testing of the NSAID ketoprofen, which was not reported to cause mortality in clinical treatment of scavenging birds and is rapidly eliminated from livestock tissues. Safety testing was undertaken using captive non-releasable Cape griffon vultures (Gyps coprotheres) and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (G. africanus), both previously identified as susceptible to diclofenac and suitable surrogates. Ketoprofen doses ranged from 0.5 to 5 mg kg-1 vulture body weight, based upon recommended veterinary guidelines and maximum levels of exposure for wild vultures (estimated as 1.54mg kg-1). Doses were administered by oral gavage or through feeding tissues from cattle dosed with ketoprofen at 6 mg kg-1 cattle bodyweight, before slaughter.Mortalities occurred at dose levels of 1.5 and 5mg kg-1 vulture body weight (within the range recommended for clinical treatment) with the same clinical signs as observed for diclofenac. Surveys of livestock carcasses in India indicate that toxic levels of residual ketoprofen are already present in vulture food supplies. Consequently, we strongly recommend that ketoprofen is not used for veterinary treatment of livestock in Asia and in other regions of the world where vultures access livestock carcasses. The only alternative to diclofenac that should be promoted as safe for vultures is the NSAID meloxicam.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/144429
DOI10.1098/rsbl.2009.0818
Identifiersdoi: 10.1098/rsbl.2009.0818
issn: 1744-9561
e-issn: 1744-957X
Appears in Collections:(IREC) Artículos
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