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Tackling probiotic and gut microbiota functionality through proteomics

AuthorsRuíz García, Lorena ; Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio ; Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Lourenço, Anália; Sánchez García, Borja ; Margolles Barros, Abelardo
Stress adaptation
Gut microbiota
Issue Date16-Sep-2016
CitationJournal of Proteomics 147: 28-39 (2016)
AbstractProbiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Many strains exert their beneficial effects after transiently colonizing the human gut, where they interact with the rest of the intestinal microorganisms and with the host mucosa. Indeed the human gut harbours a huge number of microorganisms also known as gut microbiota. Imbalances in the relative abundances of the individual components of the gut microbiota may determine the health status of the host and alterations in specific groups have been related to different diseases and metabolic disorders. Proteomics provide a set of high-throughput methodologies for protein identification that are extremely useful for studying probiotic functionality and helping in the assessment of specific health-promoting activities, such as their immunomodulatory activity, the intestinal colonization processes, and the crosstalk mechanisms with the host. Furthermore, proteomics have been used to identify markers of technological performance and stress adaptation, which helps to predict traits such as behaviour into food matrices and ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this review is to compile studies in which proteomics have been used to assess probiotic functionality and to identify molecular players supporting their mechanisms of action. Significance Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Molecular basis underlying the functional properties of probiotic bacteria responsible for the health promoting effects have been in the background for many years. Breakthrough of omics technologies in the probiotic and microbiota fields has had a very relevant impact in the elucidation of probiotic mechanisms and in the procedures to select these microorganisms, based on solid scientific evidence. It is unquestionable that, in the near future, the evolution of proteomic techniques will play a pivotal role in the generation of knowledge about the functions of probiotics and gut commensals, still a pending issue in the field of intestinal microbiomics.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2016.03.023
Identifiersissn: 1876-7737
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