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Genetic modification of hypoxia signaling in animal models and its effect on cancer

AuthorsGarcía-Heredia, J. M.; Felipe-Abrio, Blanca; Cano González, David A.; Carnero, Amancio
Genetically modified mouse models
Issue DateFeb-2014
CitationClinical and Translational Oncology 17(2): 90-102 (2014)
Abstract© 2014, Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO). Conditions that cause hypoxemia or generalized tissue hypoxia, which can last for days, months, or even years, are very common in the human population and are among the leading causes of morbidity, disability, and mortality. Therefore, the molecular pathophysiology of hypoxia and its potential deleterious effects on human health are important issues at the forefront of biomedical research. Generalized hypoxia is a consequence of highly prevalent medical disorders that can severely reduce the capacity for O2 exchange between the air and pulmonary capillaries. In recent years, some of the key O2-dependent signaling pathways have been characterized at the molecular level. In particular, the prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)-hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) cascade has emerged as the master regulator of a general gene expression program involved in cell/tissue/organ adaptation to hypoxia. Hypoxia has emerged as a critical factor in cancer because it can promote tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapy. Beyond its role in neovascularization as a mechanism of tumor adaptation to nutrient and O2 deprivation, hypoxia has been linked to prolonged cellular lifespan and immortalization, the generation of “oncometabolites”, deregulation of stem cell proliferation, and inflammation, among other tumor hallmarks. Hypoxia may contribute to cancer through several independent pathways, the inter-connections of which have yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the relevance of chronic hypoxemia in the initiation and progression of cancer has not been studied in depth in the whole organism. Therefore, we explore here the contributions of hypoxia to the whole organism by reviewing studies on genetically modified mice with alterations in the key molecular factors regulating hypoxia.
Publisher version (URL)http://doi.org/10.1007/s12094-014-1236-0
Identifierse-issn: 1699-3055
issn: 1699-048X
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