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The human intestinal microbiome at extreme ages of life. Dietary intervention as a way to counteract alterations

AuthorsSalazar, Nuria ; Arboleya, Silvia ; Valdés, Lorena ; Ross, Paul; Ruíz García, Lorena ; Gueimonde Fernández, Miguel ; González de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara ; Stanton, Catherine
Issue Date21-Nov-2014
PublisherFrontiers in Bioscience Publications
CitationFront. Genet. 5 (2014)
AbstractThe intestinal microbiome is defined as the assembly of genomes from microorganisms inhabiting the gut. This microbial ecosystem regulates important functions of the host and its correct composition and functionality is essential for a >healthy status.> Metagenomic studies have highlighted variations of the intestinal microbiota as a function of age and diet. Colonization of the infant gut starts at birth and is influenced by feeding habits (formula vs. breast-feeding), birth mode and antibiotic exposure. The intestinal microbiota of full-term vaginally delivered breast-fed infants is considered the gold-standard, representing the reference for studies of alterations in other pediatric populations. At 2-3 years of age, the intestinal microbiota reaches a composition similar to adults, remaining without noticeable variations until senescence, when microbial instability and changes reappear. Here we summarize the current knowledge on intestinal microbiota alterations at extreme stages of life and tools for designing differentiated nutritional strategies by the use of probiotics, prebiotics and specific nutrients in order to restore a balanced microbiota and to improve immune and nutritional status. © 2014 Salazar, Arboleya, Valdés, Stanton, Ross, Ruiz, Gueimonde and de los Reyes-Gavilán.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2014.00406
Identifiersissn: 1664-8021
Appears in Collections:(IPLA) Artículos
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