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dc.contributor.authorAnza, Ibone-
dc.contributor.authorVidal, Dolors-
dc.contributor.authorLaguna, Celia-
dc.contributor.authorDíaz-Sánchez, Sandra-
dc.contributor.authorSánchez, Sergio-
dc.contributor.authorChicote, Álvaro-
dc.contributor.authorFlorín, Máximo-
dc.contributor.authorMateo, Rafael-
dc.identifierdoi: 10.1128/AEM.00949-14-
dc.identifiere-issn: 1098-5336-
dc.identifierissn: 0099-2240-
dc.identifier.citationApplied and Environmental Microbiology 80(14): 4251-4259 (2014)-
dc.description.abstractDue to the scarcity of water resources in the >Mancha Húmeda> Biosphere Reserve, the use of treated wastewater has been proposed as a solution for the conservation of natural threatened floodplain wetlands. In addition, wastewater treatment plants of many villages pour their effluent into nearby natural lakes. We hypothesized that certain avian pathogens present in wastewater may cause avian mortalities which would trigger avian botulism outbreaks. With the aim of testing our hypothesis, 24 locations distributed in three wetlands, two that receive wastewater effluents and one serving as a control, were monitored during a year. Sediment, water, water bird feces, and invertebrates were collected for the detection of putative avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens type A, and Clostridium botulinum type C/D. Also, water and sediment physicochemical properties were determined. Overall, APEC, C. perfringens, and C. botulinum were significantly more prevalent in samples belonging to the wetlands which receive wastewater. The occurrence of a botulism outbreak in one of the studied wetlands coincided with high water temperatures and sediment 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), a decrease in water redox potential, chlorophyll a, and sulfate levels, and an increase in water inorganic carbon levels. The presence of C. botulinum in bird feces before the onset of the outbreak indicates that carrier birds exist and highlights the risk of botulinum toxin production in their carcasses if they die by other causes such as bacterial diseases, which are more probable in wastewater wetlands.-
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Environment (grants OAPN 035/2009). I. Anza was supported by a JAE PRE grant from Spanish Council of Research (CSIC); D. Vidal was supported with a JAE DOC contract from the CSIC; and S. Díaz-Sánchez held a Ph.D. research grant funded by the Junta de Comunidades de Castilla—La Mancha (JCCM) (AG07). S. Sánchez acknowledges the Consejería de Educación y Ciencia de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla—La Mancha and Fondo Social Europeo for his research fellowship (09/02-C).-
dc.publisherAmerican Society for Microbiology-
dc.titleEutrophication and bacterial pathogens as risk factors for avian botulism outbreaks in wetlands receiving effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants-
dc.description.versionPeer Reviewed-
dc.contributor.funderOrganismo Autónomo Parques Nacionales (España)-
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Medio Ambiente (España)-
dc.contributor.funderConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)-
dc.contributor.funderJunta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commission-
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