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dc.contributor.authorBonal, Raúl-
dc.contributor.authorHernández, Marisa-
dc.contributor.authorEspelta, Josep Maria-
dc.contributor.authorMuñoz, Alberto-
dc.contributor.authorAparicio, José Miguel-
dc.identifierdoi: 10.1098/rsos.150198-
dc.identifiere-issn: 2054-5703-
dc.identifier.citationRoyal Society Open Science 2: 150198 (2015)-
dc.description.abstractThe complexity of animal life histories makes it difficult to predict the consequences of climate change on their populations. In this paper, we show, for the first time, that longer summer drought episodes, such as those predicted for the dry Mediterranean region under climate change, may bias insect population sex ratio. Many Mediterranean organisms, like the weevil Curculio elephas, become active again after summer drought. This insect depends on late summer rainfall to soften the soil and allow adult emergence from their underground refuges. We found that, as in many protandric species, more C. elephas females emerged later in the season. Male emergence timing was on average earlier and also more dependent on the beginning of late summer rainfall. When these rains were delayed, the observed weevil sex ratio was biased towards females. So far, the effects of global warming on animal sex ratios has been reported for temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. Our results show that rainfall timing can also bias the sex ratio in an insect, and highlight the need for keeping a phenological perspective to predict the consequences of climate change. We must consider not just the magnitude of the predicted changes in temperature and rainfall but also the effects of their timing.-
dc.description.sponsorshipR.B. was funded by a contract of the Atracción de Talento Investigador Programme (Gobierno de Extremadura). A.M. was funded by a Juan de la Cierva contract (Ministerio de Educación). J.M.A. and M.H. were funded by the Spanish Research Council (CSIC). J.M.E. is contracted by the CREAF Institute. The work was financed by the projects: CONSOLIDER-MONTES CSD2008-00040 CONSOLIDER-MICINN, PII1C09-0256-9052 and PPII-2014-01-PJCCM ESF and CGL2008-00095/BOS MICINN.-
dc.publisherRoyal Society (Great Britain)-
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's version-
dc.subjectClimate change-
dc.subjectSex ratio-
dc.titleUnexpected consequences of a drier world: evidence that delay in late summer rains biases the population sex ratio of an insect-
dc.description.versionPeer Reviewed-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commission-
dc.contributor.funderConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)-
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Ciencia e Innovación (España)-
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Educación (España)-
dc.contributor.funderJunta de Extremadura-
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