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Manganese supplementation in deer under balanced diet increases impact energy and contents in minerals of antler bone tissue

AutorCappelli, Jamil; García, Andrés J. ; Ceacero, Francisco ; Gómez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano ; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás
Fecha de publicación2015
EditorPublic Library of Science
CitaciónPLoS ONE 10(7): e0132738 (2015)
ResumenBone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.
Versión del editorhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132738
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132738
e-issn: 1932-6203
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