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Habitat segregation and ecological character displacement in cryptic African malaria mosquitoes

AutorTene Fossog, Billy; Acevedo, Pelayo ; Besansky, Nora J.; Costantini, Carlo
Palabras claveMolecular forms
Malaria vector
Habitat segregation
Ecological speciation
Ecological character displacement
Cryptic species
Anopheles gambiae
Anopheles coluzzii
Niche partitioning
Urban pollution
Saltwater tolerance
Spatial ecology
Species distribution modelling
Fecha de publicación2015
EditorWiley-Blackwell
CitaciónEvolutionary Applications 8(4): 326-345 (2015)
ResumenUnderstanding how divergent selection generates adaptive phenotypic and population diversification provides a mechanistic explanation of speciation in recently separated species pairs. Towards this goal, we sought ecological gradients of divergence between the cryptic malaria vectors Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae and then looked for a physiological trait that may underlie such divergence. Using a large set of occurrence records and eco-geographic information, we built a distribution model to predict the predominance of the two species across their range of sympatry. Our model predicts two novel gradients along which the species segregate: distance from the coastline and altitude. Anopheles coluzzii showed a 'bimodal' distribution, predominating in xeric West African savannas and along the western coastal fringe of Africa. To test whether differences in salinity tolerance underlie this habitat segregation, we assessed the acute dose-mortality response to salinity of thirty-two larval populations from Central Africa. In agreement with its coastal predominance, Anopheles coluzzii was overall more tolerant than An. gambiae. Salinity tolerance of both species, however, converged in urban localities, presumably reflecting an adaptive response to osmotic stress from anthropogenic pollutants. When comparing degree of tolerance in conjunction with levels of syntopy, we found evidence of character displacement in this trait.
DescripciónThis is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.-- et al.
Versión del editorhttps://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12242
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/142003
DOI10.1111/eva.12242
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1111/eva.12242
e-issn: 1752-4571
issn: 1752-4563
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