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Regeneraçao da Vegetaçao após o fogo em Portugal-Implicaçoes para a Gestao

AuthorsMaia, Paula
AdvisorPausas, J. G.
Post-fire management
Seed bank
Fire severity
Forest fires
Pinus pinaster
Erica australis
Erica umbellata
Pterospartum tridentatum
Issue Date28-Nov-2014
PublisherCSIC-GV-UV- Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación (CIDE)
Universidade de Aveiro
AbstractThis thesis aims at improving the knowledge on the post-fire vegetation regeneration. For that, forests and shrublands were studied, after forest fires and experimental fires. Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) recruitment after fire was studied. Fire severity was evidenced as a major effect on this process. High crown fire severity can combust the pines, destroying the seed bank and impeding post fire pine recruitment. However, crown combustion also influences the post-fire conditions on the soil surface, since high crown combustion (HCC) will decrease the postfire needle cast. After low crown combustion (LCC) (scorched rather than torched crowns), a considerable needle cover was observed, along with a higher density of pine seedlings. The overall trends of post-fire recruitment among LCC and HCC areas could be significantly attributed to cover by needles, as well by the estimation of fire severity using the diameters of the burned twigs (TSI). Fire increased the germination from the soil seed bank of a Pinus pinaster forest, and the effects were also related with fire severity. The densities of seedlings of the dominant taxa (genus Erica and Calluna vulgaris) were contrastingly affected in relation to the unburned situation, depending on fire severity, as estimated from the degree of fire-induced crown damage (LCC/HCC), as well as using a severity index based on the diameters of remaining twigs (TSI). Low severity patches had an increase in germination density relatively to the control, while high severity patches suffered a reduction. After an experimental fire in a heathland dominated by Pterospartum tridentatum, Erica australis and E. umbellata, no net differences in seedling emergence were observed, in relation to the pre-fire situation. However, rather than having no effect, the heterogeneity of temperatures caused by fire promoted caused divergent effects over the burned plot in terms of Erica australis germination – a progressive increased was observed in the plots were maximum temperature recorded ranged from 29 to 42.5ºC and decreased in plots with maximum temperature ranging from 51.5 to 74.5ºC. In this heathland, the seed density of two of the main species (E. australis and E. umbellata) was higher under their canopies, but the same was not true for P. tridentatum. The understory regeneration in pine and eucalypt stands, 5 to 6 years post fire, has been strongly associated with post-fire management practices. The effect of forest type was, comparatively, insignificant. Soil tilling, tree harvesting and shrub clearance, were linked to lower soil cover percentages. However, while all these management operations negatively affected the cover of resprouters, seeders were not affected by soil tilling. A strong influence of biogeographic region was identified, suggesting that more vulnerable regions may suffer higher effects of management, even under comparatively lower management pressure than more productive regions. This emphasizes the need to adequate post-fire management techniques to the target regions.
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