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Título

The Animal Model Determines the Results of Aeromonas Virulence Factors

AutorRomero, Alejandro ; Saraceni, Paolo R. ; Merino, Susana; Figueras Huerta, Antonio; Tomás, Juan M.; Novoa, Beatriz
Palabras claveAnimal model
Zebrafish larvae
Rainbow trout
Mice
Aeromonas
Virulence factors
In vivo infection
Mutant Aeromonas
Fecha de publicación2016
EditorFrontiers Media
CitaciónFrontiers in Microbiology 7: 1574 (2016)
ResumenThe selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analyzed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-11vapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild-type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-11rmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the AH-11wahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH- 11FlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim) and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella). They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study demonstrates that zebrafish larvae can be used as a host model to assess the virulence factors of A. hydrophila. This model revealed more differences in pathogenicity than the in vitro models and enabled the detection of slight variations in pathogenesis not observed using intraperitoneal injections of mice or fish
Descripción11 páginas, 6 figuras, 2 tablas.-- This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01574
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/141255
DOI10.3389/fmicb.2016.01574
E-ISSN1664-302X
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