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Title

Presence of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals in the waters of a Mediterranean coastal wetland: Potential interactions and the influence of the environment

AuthorsAndreu Pérez, V. ; Gimeno-García, Eugenia ; Pascual, Juan Antonio ; Vázquez-Roig, Pablo; Picó, Yolanda
KeywordsCoastal wetlands
Heavy metals
Pharmaceuticals
Human pressure
Environmental influence
Water
Issue Date1-Jan-2016
PublisherElsevier
CitationScience of the Total Environment 540: 278-286 (2016)
AbstractThe occurrence of 17 relevant pharmaceuticals and 7 heavy metals in the waters of the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencia Community, Spain) were monitored. Thirty four zones (including the lagoon and the most important irrigation channels), covering the main land uses and water sources, were selected for sampling. Thirty three of them were contaminated with at least one pharmaceutical. Ibuprofen and codeine were the pharmaceuticals more frequently detected, in concentrations between 4.8 and 1.2 ng/L and a maximum of 59 ng/L and 63 ng/L, respectively.Regarding metals, Zn showed values under the detection limit in all the samples, while Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were detected at concentrations lower than the WHO and EU maximum levels for drinking waters. Ni showed significant direct correlations with diazepam, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and fenofibrate, and inverse relationships with ibuprofen, at 99 and 95% of significance. Cu, Co and Cr also showed significant correlations with some of the pharmaceuticals. These interactions could favor the synergistic/antagonistic interactions among pharmaceuticals and metals in the marsh, which can affect its aquatic fauna and flora or even human health. The influences of the water sources, land uses and spatial distribution of both types of contaminants were also studied.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.007
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/141155
DOI10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.007
Identifiersissn: 1879-1026
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