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Title

Orientation symmetry breaking in self-assembled Ce1-xGdxO2-y nanowires derived from chemical solutions

AuthorsQueraltó, Albert ; Mata, Maria de la; Martínez-Orellana, Lidia ; Magén, César; Gibert, M; Arbiol, Jordi; Hühne, R; Obradors, Xavier ; Puig Molina, Teresa
KeywordsNanostructures
Thermodynamic driving forces
Rapid thermal annealing
Nanowires
Oxygen vacancies
Issue Date6-Oct-2016
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry (UK)
CitationRSC Advances 6(99): 97226-97236 (2016)
AbstractUnderstanding the growth mechanisms of nanostructures obtained from chemical solutions, a high-throughput production methodology, is essential to correlate precisely the growth conditions with the nanostructures' morphology, dimensions and orientation. It is shown that self-organized (011)-oriented CeGdO (CGO) nanowires having a single in-plane orientation are achieved when an anisotropic (011)-LaAlO (LAO) substrate is chosen. STEM and AFM images of the epitaxial nanowires reveal the (001)CGO[0-11](011)LAO[100] growth orientation, with the enlargement occurring along the [0-11]CGO direction with (111) lateral facets. The chosen substrate allowed us to study a unique case where the resulting biaxial strain is isotropic, while the dissimilar lateral surface energies are the key factor to obtain an energetically imbalanced and non-degenerated nanowire configuration. Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) has allowed sorting of experimental nucleation from coarsening and analysis of the kinetic phenomena of the nanowires. A thermodynamic driving force is shown to exist for a continuous elongation of the nanowires while the coarsening rates are found to be strongly temperature dependent and so kinetic effects are the key factors to control the size and density of the self-organized nanowire system. A remarkably fast nanowire growth rate (14-40 nm min) is observed, which we associate with a high atomic mobility probably linked to a high concentration of oxygen vacancies, as detected by XPS. These nanowires are envisaged as model systems pushing forward the study of low energetic and highly oxygen deficient {111} lateral facets useful for catalysis, gas sensors and ionic conductivity applications.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA23717G
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/141028
Identifiersdoi: 10.1039/C6RA23717G
issn: 2046-2069
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