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Enhancement of the Knowledge on Fungal Communities in Directly Brined Aloreña de Málaga Green Olive Fermentations by Metabarcoding Analysis

AuthorsArroyo López, Francisco Noé ; Medina Pradas, Eduardo ; Ruiz Bellido, Miguel Ángel; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Montes Borrego, Miguel ; Landa, Blanca B.
Issue Date16-Sep-2016
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 11 (9): e0163135 (2016)
AbstractNowadays, our knowledge of the fungal biodiversity in fermented vegetables is limited although these microorganisms could have a great influence on the quality and safety of this kind of food. This work uses a metagenetic approach to obtain basic knowledge of the fungal community ecology during the course of fermentation of natural Aloreña de Málaga table olives, from reception of raw material to edible fruits. For this purpose, samples of brines and fruits were collected from two industries in Guadalhorce Valley (Málaga, Spain) at different moments of fermentation (0, 7, 30 and 120 days). The physicochemical and microbial counts performed during fermentation showed the typical evolution of this type of processes, mainly dominated by yeasts in apparent absence of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae. High-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region showed a low biodiversity of the fungal community, with the presence at 97% identity of 29 different fungal genera included in 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The most important genera in the raw material at the moment of reception in the industry were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Malassezia, and Candida, whilst after 4 months of fermentation in brines Zygotorulaspora and Pichia were predominant, whereas in fruits were Candida, Penicillium, Debaryomyces and Saccharomyces. The fungal genera Penicillium, Pichia, and Zygotorulaspora were shared among the three types of substrates during all the course of fermentation, representing the core fungal population for this table olive specialty. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences allowed a more accurate assignment of diverse OTUs to Pichia manshurica, Candida parapsilosis/C. tropicalis, Candida diddensiae, and Citeromyces nyonensis clades. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium in olive fermentations including phytopathogenic, saprofitic, spoilage and fermentative genera. Insights into the ecology, identification and quantification of fungi species in olive fermentation will facilitate the design of new strategies to improve the quality and safety of this fermented vegetable.
Description19 Páginas; 6 Figuras; 1 Tabla
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163135
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