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Title

The use of juvenile Solea solea as sentinel in the marine platform of the Ebre Delta: in vitro interaction of emerging contaminants with the liver detoxification system

AuthorsCrespo, Marina; Solé, Montserrat
KeywordsMultibiomarker
Chlor-alkali sludge
Ebre river
Mouth
Benthic fish
Emerging contaminants
In vitro interactions
Issue DateOct-2016
PublisherSpringer
CitationEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research 23(19): 19229-19236 (2016)
AbstractJuveniles of Solea solea were sampled during the spring season in three consecutive years at a marine site by the mouth of the Ebre river. The aim was to assess if the extractive works from the toxic load upstream the river could be reflected on the health status of the fish living at the immediate sea. The biomarkers selected for the in vivo field study are commonly used as indicators of chemical exposures. They include activities of energy metabolism: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS); neurotoxicity: cholinesterases (ChE); xenobiotic metabolism: cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent: EROD and BFCOD, carboxylesterase (CbE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT); and oxidative stress parameters such as catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO). These biomarkers were mostly analysed in liver but also in gills and muscle depending on their particular tissue distribution and role. A complementary in vitro approach was also sought to see the capacity of common emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs) to interact with the liver microsomal detoxification system of the fish (EROD, BFCOD and CbE activities). The results indicated that in fish sampled in 2015 there was an enhancement in detoxification parameters (EROD, BFCOD and gill GR), muscular ChEs and gill CS, but a decrease in CbE activity and a marked oxidative stress situation (increased LPO and decreased CAT activity). Also, 4 out of the 10 PPCPs tested in vitro were able to interact with the CYP3A4 (BFCOD) enzymatic system while the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate inhibited CbE activity, as it occurs in higher vertebrates. The in vivo results support the use of a multibiomarker approach when assessing the disturbances due to chemical exposures, not only spatially but also over time, once the influence of other variables has been taken into consideration. The in vitro results highlight the importance of the CYP3A4 and CbE pathway in pharmaceutical metabolism, also in fish
Description8 pages, 4 figures, 1 table
Publisher version (URL)https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7146-7
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/139496
DOI10.1007/s11356-016-7146-7
Identifiersdoi: 10.1007/s11356-016-7146-7
issn: 0944-1344
e-issn: 1614-7499
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