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Title

Upper D region chemical kinetic modeling of LORE relaxation times

AuthorsGordillo Vázquez, Francisco J. ; Luque, Alejandro ; Haldoupis, C.
KeywordsKinetics underlying LOng Recovery
Early VLF events (LOREs) relaxation
Issue Date15-Apr-2016
PublisherAmerican Geophysical Union
CitationJournal of Geophysical Research - Part A - Space Physics 121(4): 3525-3544 (2016)
AbstractThe recovery times of upper D region electron density elevations, caused by lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP), are modeled. The work was motivated from the need to understand a recently identified narrowband VLF perturbation named LOREs, an acronym for LOng Recovery Early VLF events. LOREs associate with long-living electron density perturbations in the upper D region ionosphere; they are generated by strong EMP radiated from large peak current intensities of +/- CG (cloud to ground) lightning discharges, known also to be capable of producing elves. Relaxation model scenarios are considered first for a weak enhancement in electron density and then for a much stronger one caused by an intense lightning EMP acting as an impulsive ionization source. The full nonequilibrium kinetic modeling of the perturbed mesosphere in the 76 to 92 km range during LORE-occurring conditions predicts that the electron density relaxation time is controlled by electron attachment at lower altitudes, whereas above 79 km attachment is balanced totally by associative electron detachment so that electron loss at these higher altitudes is controlled mainly by electron recombination with hydrated positive clusters H+(H2O)(n) and secondarily by dissociative recombination with NO+ ions, a process which gradually dominates at altitudes > 88 km. The calculated recovery times agree fairly well with LORE observations. In addition, a simplified (quasi-analytic) model build for the key charged species and chemical reactions is applied, which arrives at similar results with those of the full kinetic model. Finally, the modeled recovery estimates for lower altitudes, that is < 79 km, are in good agreement with the observed short recovery times of typical early VLF events, which are known to be associated with sprites.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021408
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/139447
DOI10.1002/2015JA021408
ISSN2169-9380
E-ISSN2169-9402
Appears in Collections:(IAA) Artículos
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