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The microbiome of the uropygial secretion in hoopoes is shaped along the nesting phase

AutorMartínez García, Ángela ; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena ; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Arco, Laura; Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia M; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M. ; Soler, Juan José
Palabras claveCross-fostering experiment
Horizontal transmission
Microbial symbiont
Microbial transmission
Parent-offspring comparisons
Upupa epops
Vertical transmission
Fecha de publicación13-abr-2016
CitaciónMicrobial Ecology 72 (1) : 252-261 (2016)
ResumenMicrobial symbiont acquisition by hosts may determine the effectiveness of the mutualistic relationships. A mix of vertical and horizontal transmission may be advantageous for hosts by allowing plastic changes of microbial communities depending on environmental conditions. Plasticity is well known for gut microbiota but is poorly understood for other symbionts of wild animals. We here explore the importance of environmental conditions experienced by nestling hoopoes (Upupa epops) during the late nesting phase determining microbiota in their uropygial gland. In cross-fostering experiments of 8 days old nestlings, “sibling-sibling” and “mother-offspring” comparisons were used to explore whether the bacterial community naturally established in the uropygial gland of nestlings could change depending on experimental environmental conditions (i.e., new nest environment). We found that the final microbiome of nestlings was mainly explained by nest of origin. Moreover, cross-fostered nestlings were more similar to their siblings and mothers than to their stepsiblings and stepmothers. We also detected a significant effect of nest of rearing, suggesting that nestling hoopoes acquire most bacterial symbionts during the first days of life but that the microbiome is dynamic and can be modified along the nestling period depending on environmental conditions. Estimated effects of nest of rearing, but also most of those of nest of origin are associated to environmental characteristics of nests, which are extended phenotypes of parents. Thus, natural selection may favor the acquisition of appropriated microbial symbionts for particular environmental conditions found in nests.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-016-0765-1
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