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Detoxifying enzymes at the cross-roads of inflammation, oxidative stress, and drug hypersensitivity: role of glutathione transferase P1-1 and aldose reductase

AuthorsSánchez-Gómez, Francisco J. ; Díez-Dacal, Beatriz ; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José Augusto G.; Pajares, María A. ; Pérez-Sala, Dolores
KeywordsGlutathione transferase
Aldose reductase
Oxidative stress
Drug adduct
Drug hypersensitivity
Issue Date4-Aug-2016
PublisherFrontiers Media
CitationFrontiers Pharmacology 7: 237 (2016)
AbstractPhase I and II enzymes are involved in the metabolism of endogenous reactive compounds as well as xenobiotics, including toxicants and drugs. Genotyping studies have established several drug metabolizing enzymes as markers for risk of drug hypersensitivity. However, other candidates are emerging that are involved in drug metabolism but also in the generation of danger or costimulatory signals. Enzymes such as aldo-keto reductases (AKR) and glutathione transferases (GST) metabolize prostaglandins and reactive aldehydes with proinflammatory activity, as well as drugs and/or their reactive metabolites. In addition, their metabolic activity can have important consequences for the cellular redox status, and impacts the inflammatory response as well as the balance of inflammatory mediators, which can modulate epigenetic factors and cooperate or interfere with drug-adduct formation. These enzymes are, in turn, targets for covalent modification and regulation by oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, and drugs. Therefore, they constitute a platform for a complex set of interactions involving drug metabolism, protein haptenation, modulation of the inflammatory response, and/or generation of danger signals with implications in drug hypersensitivity reactions. Moreover, increasing evidence supports their involvement in allergic processes. Here, we will focus on GSTP1-1 and aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and provide a perspective for their involvement in drug hypersensitivity
Description9 p.-2 fig
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00237
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