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Evaluation of adjuvant activity of fractions derived from Agaricus blazei, when in association with the recombinant LiHyp1 protein, to protect against visceral leishmaniasis

AuthorsJesús Pererir, Nathália C. de; Soto, Manuel ; Coelho, Eduardo A. F.
KeywordsAgaricus blazei
BALB/c mice
Th1 immune response
Polysaccharide-rich fractions
Visceral leishmaniasis
Issue Date3-Apr-2015
PublisherAcademic Press
CitationExperimental Parasitology 153: 180- 190 (2015)
Abstract© 2015 Elsevier Inc. The development of effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high priority. No less important than the choice of an antigen, the association of an appropriate adjuvant is necessary to achieve a successful vaccination, as the majority of the tested antigens contain limited immunogenic properties, and need to be supplemented with immune response adjuvants in order to boost their immunogenicity. However, few effective adjuvants that can be used against leishmaniasis exist on the market today; therefore, it is possible to speculate that the research aiming to identify new adjuvants could be considered relevant. Recently, Agaricus blazei extracts have proved to be useful in enhancing the immune response to DNA vaccines against some diseases. This was based on the Th1 adjuvant activity of the polysaccharide-rich fractions from this mushroom. In this context, the present study evaluated purified fractions derived from Agaricus blazei as Th1 adjuvants through in vitro assays of their immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive BALB/c mice. Two of the tested six fractions (namely F2 and F4) were characterized as polysaccharide-rich fractions, and were able to induce high levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in the spleen cells. The efficacy of adjuvant action against L. infantum was evaluated in BALB/c mice, with these fractions being administered together with a recombinant antigen, LiHyp1, which was previously evaluated as a vaccine candidate, associated with saponin, against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The associations between LiHyp1/F2 and LiHyp1/F4 were able to induce an in vivo Th1 response, which was primed by high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, by low levels of IL-4 and IL-10; as well as by a predominance of IgG2a antibodies in the vaccinated animals. After infection, the immune profile was maintained, and the vaccines proved to be effective against L. infantum. The immune stimulatory effects in the BALB/c mice proved to be similar when comparing the F2 and F4 fractions with a known Th1 adjuvant (saponin), though animals vaccinated with saponin did present a slight to moderate inflammatory edema on their hind footpads. In conclusion, the F2 and F4 fractions appear to induce a Th1-type immune response and, in this context, they could be evaluated in association with other protective antigens against Leishmania, as well as in other disease models.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2015.03.027
issn: 1090-2449
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