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Promoting deoxygenation of bio-oil by metal-loaded hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites

AuthorsVeses Roda, Alberto ; Puértolas Lacambra, Begoña; López Sebastián, José Manuel ; Callén Romero, Mª Soledad ; Solsona, Benjamín; García Martínez, Tomás
KeywordsHierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite
Metal loading
Bio-oil upgrading
Issue Date9-Feb-2016
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
CitationACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 4(3): 1653-1660 (2016)
AbstractThe catalytic upgrading of crude bio-oils obtained through the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remarkably improves the properties of the final bio-oil. It has been demonstrated that the impregnation of hierarchically structured ZSM-5 zeolites with metal cations (Sn, Cu, Ni or Mg) promotes oxygen removal. Remarkably, the Mg-loaded hierarchical zeolite has led to the best fuel characteristics, achieving the greatest reduction in the oxygen-content and the lowest acidity. The promotion of ketonization reactions of acids with aldehydes to produce ketones seems to be favored over the Lewis acid sites created after incorporation of Mg cations at the ion exchange sites. A slightly lower deoxygenation rate is obtained for Cu-loaded hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite. However, some subtle differences are identified. The most significant feature is the remarkable amount of evolved CO observed in the gas fraction. Thus, it could be assumed that decarbonylation of acids to aldehydes at Cu cations incorporated at ion exchange positions seems to be the prevalent deoxygenation reaction for this solid. Similarly, the preferential mechanism for O-removal using hierarchically structured Ni and Sn-ZSM-5 zeolites derived catalysts seems to proceed through decarbonylation and decarboxylation reactions at the metal acid Lewis sites. Although a prevalent reaction mechanism could not be identified, lower cation incorporation at ion exchange positions could explain the inferior deoxygenation rate. In all the cation-loaded hierarchical zeolites, the incorporation of metallic species at the ion exchange sites decreases the production of desired aromatics and this is linked with a lower amount of Brønsted acid sites.
Description3 Figuras.- 5 tablas.-1 Esquema.- This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b01606 ”
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b01606
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