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Title

Determinants of functional connectivity of holm oak woodlands: Fragment size and mouse foraging behavior

AuthorsMorán-López, Teresa; Robledo-Arnuncio, J.J.; Díaz Esteban, Mario ; Morales, Juan Manuel; Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Lorenzo, Z.; Valladares Ros, Fernando
KeywordsQuercus ilex
Mating network
Seed dispersal
Pollen dispersal
Forest fragmentation
Issue Date15-May-2016
PublisherElsevier
CitationForest Ecology and Management 368: 111-122 (2016)
AbstractDemographic and genetic connectivity of fragmented plant populations will depend on effective propagule flow across the landscape. We analyze functional connectivity in a holm oak (Quercus ilex) fragmented landscape by considering three important stages driving recruitment: effective pollination, acorn production and acorn dispersal. We used a network approach to (1) determine if pollen-mediated gene exchange across the landscape was spatially structured; (2) estimate the effects of limited acorn dispersal on functional connectivity; (3) identify which landscape traits could drive source–sink dynamics of gene flow. Although long distance dispersal was relatively frequent, most effective pollen flow occurred over short distances (<100 m). This resulted in a significantly modular structure of the mating network, yielding higher gene flow among nearby fragments. Limited mouse acorn hoarding activity had a strong impact on landscape connectivity, decreasing male gametic immigration rates into forest patches by one order of magnitude Besides, our results show that big forest fragments (>10 ha) are the main pollen sources, while small ones (<1 ha) are important pollen sinks. Thus, big fragments are critical to maintain functional connectivity, while small forest fragments may provide acorn crops better representing regional genetic diversity. In addition to area effects, less isolated and more central fragments showed higher migration rates and exchanged effective pollen with more fragments. Hence, we expected that landscapes with uniform or clumped distribution of big forest fragments would show optimal connectivity traits. However, despite that simulated gene flow was more evenly distributed across the landscape, connectance and migration rates decreased. Our results call for caution before translating patch-level management guidelines to the landscape scale. They also show that the level of functional connectivity may change throughout the recruitment process, suggesting that large-scale conservation strategies may fail if local effective seed establishment is disregarded.
DescriptionReceived 11 December 2015, Revised 1 March 2016, Accepted 3 March 2016, Available online 12 March 2016
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.03.010
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/133161
DOI10.1016/j.foreco.2016.03.010
ISSN0378-1127
Appears in Collections:(MNCN) Artículos
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