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Title

High-throughput fabrication of resonant metamaterials with ultrasmall coaxial apertures via atomic layer lithography

AuthorsYoo, Daehan; Martín-Moreno, Luis ; Carretero-Palacios, S.; Oh, Sang-Hyun
KeywordsCoaxial nanohole
Atomic layer lithography
Glancing-angle ion milling
Slow light
Epsilon-near-zero metamaterial
Extraordinary optical transmission
Issue Date2016
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
CitationNano Letters 16(3): 2040−2046 (2016)
AbstractWe combine atomic layer lithography and glancingangle ion polishing to create wafer-scale metamaterials composed of dense arrays of ultrasmall coaxial nanocavities in gold films. This new fabrication scheme makes it possible to shrink the diameter and increase the packing density of 2 nm-gap coaxial resonators, an extreme subwavelength structure first manufactured via atomic layer lithography, both by a factor of 100 with respect to previous studies. We demonstrate that the nonpropagating zeroth-order Fabry-Pérot mode, which possesses slow light-like properties at the cutoff resonance, traps infrared light inside 2 nm gaps (gap volume ∼ λ3/106). Notably, the annular gaps cover only 3% or less of the metal surface, while open-area normalized transmission is as high as 1700% at the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) condition. The resulting energy accumulation alongside extraordinary optical transmission can benefit applications in nonlinear optics, optical trapping, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Furthermore, because the resonance wavelength is independent of the cavity length and dramatically red shifts as the gap size is reduced, large-area arrays can be constructed with λresonance ≫ period, making this fabrication method ideal for manufacturing resonant metamaterials.
DescriptionThis is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License.-- et al.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00024
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/132260
DOI10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00024
ISSN1530-6984
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