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Title

Fieldlike and antidamping spin-orbit torques in as-grown and annealed Ta/CoFeB/MgO layers

AuthorsOnur Avci, Can; Garello, Kevin CSIC ORCID; Nistor, Corneliu CSIC; Godey, Sylvie CSIC; Ballesteros, Belén CSIC ORCID; Mugarza, Aitor CSIC ORCID; Miron, Ioan Mihai CSIC; Gambardella, Pietro
Issue Date2014
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics
CitationPhysical Review B 89(21): 214419 (2014)
AbstractWe present a comprehensive study of the current-induced spin-orbit torques in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/CoFeB/MgO layers. The samples were annealed in steps up to 300 °C and characterized using x-ray-absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, resistivity, and Hall effect measurements. By performing adiabatic harmonic Hall voltage measurements, we show that the transverse (fieldlike) and longitudinal (antidampinglike) spin-orbit torques are composed of constant and magnetization-dependent contributions, both of which vary strongly with annealing. Such variations correlate with changes of the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy and are assigned to chemical and structural modifications of the layers. The relative variation of the constant and anisotropic torque terms as a function of annealing temperature is opposite for the fieldlike and antidamping torques. Measurements of the switching probability using sub-μs current pulses show that the critical current increases with the magnetic anisotropy of the layers, whereas the switching efficiency, measured as the ratio of magnetic anisotropy energy and pulse energy, decreases. The optimal annealing temperature to achieve maximum magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization, and switching efficiency is determined to be between 240 and 270°C.
DescriptionUnder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY).-- et al.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.89.214419
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/131461
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.89.214419
Identifiersdoi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.214419
issn: 1098-0121
e-issn: 1550-235X
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