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Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

AutorEstrada, Marta ; Delgado, Maximino ; Blasco, Dolors ; Latasa, Mikel ; Cabello, Ana María ; Benítez Barrios, Verónica ; Fraile-Nuez, E.; Mozetic, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat
Fecha de publicación16-mar-2016
EditorPublic Library of Science
CitaciónPLoS ONE 11(3): e0151699 (2016)
ResumenWe examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal component assemblage), including several pennate taxa, Planktoniella sol, Hemiaulus hauckii and Pseudo-nitzschia spp., in the divergence regions. Our findings indicate that consistent assemblages of co-occurring phytoplankton taxa can be identified and that their distribution is best explained by a combination in different degrees of both environmental and historical influences.
Descripción29 pages,8 figures, 9 tables, supporting information http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151699
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151699
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151699
issn: 1932-6203
e-issn: 1932-6203
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