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dc.contributor.authorPostigo, Cristina-
dc.contributor.authorLópez de Alda, Miren-
dc.contributor.authorViana, Mar-
dc.contributor.authorQuerol, Xavier-
dc.contributor.authorAlastuey, Andrés-
dc.contributor.authorArtíñano, Begoña-
dc.contributor.authorBarceló, Damià-
dc.identifier.citationAnalytical Chemistry (2009), DOI: 10.1021/ac9002485 (in press)en_US
dc.description8 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables.-- PMID: 19425532 [PubMed].-- Article in press.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis work describes the first analytical method specifically developed for the multianalyte determination of several drugs of abuse and their metabolites in air. The methodology is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of atmospheric particles collected by means of high volume sampler equipped with quartz microfiber filters and subsequent analysis of the extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Up to 17 different compounds belonging to five different chemical classes (cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, cannabinoids, and lysergic compounds) are determined by means of this methodology. Acquisition is performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode recording two transitions per compound (except for amphetamine). Quantitation by the internal standard method is based on the use of surrogated deuterated standards. The method has been validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, repeatability and sensitivity with satisfactory results. Absolute recoveries were above 50% for most investigated compounds. Method precision showed relative standard deviations (RSD) below 13% for all compounds, except for cannabinoids. The method limits of determination ranged from 0.35 pg/m3 (for 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD) to 22.55 pg/m3 (for 11-nor-9 carboxy THC). Finally, as a part of the method validation, the optimized procedure was applied to the analysis of ambient air samples (fine grain-size particulates, PM2.5) collected at two urban background sites in Barcelona and Madrid (Spain). Results evidenced the presence of cocaine, benzoilecgonine, tetrahydrocannabinol, ecstasy, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and heroin in some or all of the samples investigated. The highest mean daily levels corresponded to cocaine (850 pg/m3) followed by heroin (143 pg/m3).en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation [CGL2007-64551/HID and CGL2007-62505/CLI], the Spanish Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs (010/PC08/3-04.1), and the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (Secretaría de Estado de Universidades e Investigación), and it reflects the authors’ view. Cristina Postigo acknowledges the European Social Fund and AGAUR (Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain) for their economical support through the FI predoctoral grant.en_US
dc.format.extent49376 bytes-
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Societyen_US
dc.titleDetermination of Drugs of Abuse in Airborne Particles by Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Tandem Mass Spectrometryen_US
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer revieweden_US
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