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The regulation of coenzyme Q biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells: All that yeast can tell us

AutorGonzález-Mariscal, Isabel; García-Testón, Elena; Padilla, Sergio; Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro ; Pomares-Viciana, Teresa; Vázquez-Fonseca, Luis; Gandolfo-Domínguez, Pablo; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos
Palabras claveYeast
Respiration
Protein complex
Coenzyme Q
Ubiquinone
Mitochondria
Fecha de publicación2014
EditorS. Karger AG
CitaciónMolecular Syndromology 5(3-4): 107-118 (2014)
ResumenCoenzyme Q (CoQ) is a mitochondrial lipid, which functions mainly as an electron carrier from complex I or II to complex III at the mitochondrial inner membrane, and also as antioxidant in cell membranes. CoQ is needed as electron acceptor in β-oxidation of fatty acids and pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis, and it is responsible for opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The yeast model has been very useful to analyze the synthesis of CoQ, and therefore, most of the knowledge about its regulation was obtained from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. CoQ biosynthesis is regulated to support 2 processes: the bioenergetic metabolism and the antioxidant defense. Alterations of the carbon source in yeast, or in nutrient availability in yeasts or mammalian cells, upregulate genes encoding proteins involved in CoQ synthesis. Oxidative stress, generated by chemical or physical agents or by serum deprivation, modifies specifically the expression of some COQ genes by means of stress transcription factors such as Msn2/4p, Yap1p or Hsf1p. In general, the induction of COQ gene expression produced by metabolic changes or stress is modulated downstream by other regulatory mechanisms such as the protein import to mitochondria, the assembly of a multi-enzymatic complex composed by Coq proteins and also the existence of a phosphorylation cycle that regulates the last steps of CoQ biosynthesis. The CoQ biosynthetic complex assembly starts with the production of a nucleating lipid such as HHB by the action of the Coq2 protein. Then, the Coq4 protein recognizes the precursor HHB acting as the nucleus of the complex. The activity of Coq8p, probably as kinase, allows the formation of an initial pre-complex containing all Coq proteins with the exception of Coq7p. This pre-complex leads to the synthesis of 5-demethoxy-Q6 (DMQ6), the Coq7p substrate. When de novo CoQ biosynthesis is required, Coq7p becomes dephosphorylated by the action of Ptc7p increasing the synthesis rate of CoQ6. This critical model is needed for a better understanding of CoQ biosynthesis. Taking into account that patients with CoQ10 deficiency maintain to some extent the machinery to synthesize CoQ, new promising strategies for the treatment of CoQ 10 deficiency will require a better understanding of the regulation of CoQ biosynthesis in the future.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/129451
DOI10.1159/000362897
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1159/000362897
issn: 1661-8769
e-issn: 1661-8777
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