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dc.contributor.authorPérez-Monserrat, Elena M.es_ES
dc.contributor.authorVaras, María Josées_ES
dc.contributor.authorÁlvarez de Buergo, Mónicaes_ES
dc.contributor.authorFort González, Rafaeles_ES
dc.identifier.citationGeosciences, 6(1), 4 (2016)es_ES
dc.description.abstractAir pollution induces the development of black crusts on the surface of built heritage materials. Black layers on the limestone used on an emblematic Madrilenian building dating from the early twentieth century, mainly built up in the 20 years lapsing between two façade cleaning operations, was studied with POM and SEM-EDS. Particulate matter deposited on surfaces in the same period was analyzed with XRD and IC. Climate change in the environs was also studied and façade coloring patterns were compared. Since black crust and settled dust composition, as well as façade soling intensity, were found to be closely related to the surrounding environment, both are proposed as environment and climate change markers. These are considerations, moreover, that must be addressed when designing conservation strategies. Domestic heating systems and vehicle traffic were identified as the two main sources of pollution throughout the period studied in the target area, where the temperature steadily rose and relative humidity declined. The progressive replacement of coal with gas oil in domestic heating boilers and the proliferation of vehicles with diesel engines have mostly determined the evolution of the pollutants emitted. The color of façade soiling, in turn, has been primarily conditioned by the typology of the particles deposited on the limestone surface, declining humidity and the passage of time.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was funded by Geomaterials 2 (S2013/MIT_2914), Geomaterials (S2009/MAT_1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) Programmes, as well as the Complutense University of Madrid’s research group on the Alteration and conservation of heritage stone (921349). The authors express their gratitude to technicians Marián Barajas, Iván Serrano, Blanca Gallardo, Eugenio Baldonedo and Alfonso Rodríguez, for their assistance. The support provided by the Petrophysics Laboratory of the Geosciences Institute (IGEO), the Campus of International Excellence Moncloa (CEI_Moncloa), José María la Calle, former Deputy General Director of Architecture and Urban Planning of the Community of Madrid, and José María Cabrera, managing director of the Conservación del Patrimonio Artístico Company (CPA, S.A.) is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to thank the data and images provided by the Specialized Documents Centre of Madrid Regional Department of Environmental Affairs, Housing and Land Management, Fernando de Castro López-Villarino, Madrid Municipal Air Protection Service’s environmental information system, Spanish Meteorological Agency’s Weather Information Unit and Chartered Institute of Architects of Madrid’s Historic Archives Division. Finally, thanks are given to the referees, as their comments have improved the paper.-
dc.description.sponsorshipWe acknowledge support by the CSIC Open Access Publication Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI).-
dc.publisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institutees_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.subjectParticulate matteres_ES
dc.subjectAir pollutiones_ES
dc.subjectConservation strategieses_ES
dc.subjectBuilt heritagees_ES
dc.titleBlack Layers of Decay and Color Patterns on Heritage Limestone as Markers of Environmental Changees_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
dc.contributor.funderConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)-
dc.contributor.funderUniversidad Complutense de Madrid-
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