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Mineralogical and isotopic characterization of graphite deposits from the Anatectic Complex of Toledo, central Spain

AutorMartín-Méndez, Iván; Boixereu, Ester; Villaseca, Carlos
Palabras claveGraphite
Raman spectra
Carbon isotopes
Variscan granulites
Fecha de publicación2-dic-2015
CitaciónMineralium Deposita,pp 1-16 [First online: 02 December 2015]
ResumenGraphite is found dispersed in high-grade metapelitic rocks of the Anatectic Complex of Toledo (ACT) and was mined during the mid twentieth century in places where it has been concentrated (Guadamur and la Puebla de Montalbán mines). Some samples from these mines show variable but significant alteration intensity, reaching very low-T hydrothermal (supergene) conditions for some samples from the waste heap of the Guadamur site (<100 °C and 1 kbar). Micro-Raman and XRD data indicate that all the studied ACT graphite is of high crystallinity irrespective of the degree of hydrothermal alteration. Chemical differences were obtained for graphite δ13C composition. ACT granulitic graphite shows δ13CPDB values in the range of −20.5 to −27.8 ‰, indicating a biogenic origin. Interaction of graphite with hydrothermal fluids does not modify isotopic compositions even in the most transformed samples from mining sites. The different isotopic signatures of graphite from the mining sites reflect its contrasted primary carbon source. The high crystallinity of studied graphite makes this area of central Spain suitable for graphitic exploration and its potential exploitation, due to the low carbon content required for its viability and its strategic applications in advanced technologies, such as graphene synthesis.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00126-015-0625-9
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