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Optimization of nano-emulsion preparation by low-energy methods in an ionic surfactant system

AutorSolé, Isabel; Maestro, Alicia; González Azón, Carmen; Solans, Conxita; Gutiérrez, José M.
Fecha de publicación31-ago-2006
EditorAmerican Chemical Society
CitaciónLangmuir 22(20): 8326-8332 (2006)
ResumenThe low-energy emulsification method Emulsion Inversion Point (EIP) was used to prepare O/W nano-emulsions in the W/potassium oleate−oleic acid−C12E10/hexadecane ionic system. This method had not practically been used in ionic systems up to now. The resulting droplet sizes, much smaller than those obtained with the high-energy emulsification methods, depend on the composition (formulation variables) and preparation variables (addition and mixing rate). Phase diagrams, rheology measurements, and experimental designs applied to nano-emulsion droplet sizes obtained were combined to study the formation of these nano-emulsions. To obtain small droplet sizes, it is necessary to cross a direct cubic liquid crystal phase along the emulsification path, and it is also crucial to remain in this phase long enough to incorporate all of the oil into the liquid crystal. When nano-emulsion forms, the oil is already intimately mixed with all of the components, and it only has to be redistributed. Results show that the smaller droplet sizes are obtained when the liquid crystal zone is wide and extends to high water content, because in this case, during the emulsification process, the system remains long enough in the liquid crystal phase to allow the incorporation of all of the oil. Around the optimal formulation variables, the liquid crystal zone crossed during emulsification is wide enough to incorporate all of the oil whatever mixing or stirring rate is used, and then the resulting droplet size is independent of preparation variables. However, when the composition is far from this optimum, the liquid crystal zone becomes narrower and the mixing of components controls the nano-emulsion formation. High agitation rates and/or low addition rates are required to ensure the dissolution of all of the oil into this phase.
Descripción7 pages, 8 figures, 3 tables.-- PMID: 16981744 [PubMed].-- Printed version Sep 26, 2006.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la0613676
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