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Título

Biological roles of cAMP: variations on a theme in the different kingdoms of life

AutorGancedo, Carlos
Fecha de publicación2013
EditorJohn Wiley & Sons
CitaciónBiological Reviews 88(3): 645-688 (2013)
ResumenCyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a key regulatory role in most types of cells; however, the pathways controlled by cAMP may present important differences between organisms and between tissues within a specific organism. Changes in cAMP levels are caused by multiple triggers, most affecting adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes that synthesize cAMP. Adenylyl cyclases form a large and diverse family including soluble forms and others with one or more transmembrane domains. Regulatory mechanisms for the soluble adenylyl cyclases involve either interaction with diverse proteins, as happens in Escherichia coli or yeasts, or with calcium or bicarbonate ions, as occurs in mammalian cells. The transmembrane cyclases can be regulated by a variety of proteins, among which the α subunit and the βγ complex from G proteins coupled to membrane receptors are prominent. cAMP levels also are controlled by the activity of phosphodiesterases, enzymes that hydrolyze cAMP. Phosphodiesterases can be regulated by cAMP, cGMP or calcium-calmodulin or by phosphorylation by different protein kinases. Regulation through cAMP depends on its binding to diverse proteins, its proximal targets, this in turn causing changes in a variety of distal targets. Specifically, binding of cAMP to regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs) affects the activity of substrates of PKA, binding to exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) regulates small GTPases, binding to transcription factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) or the virulence factor regulator (Vfr) modifies the rate of transcription of certain genes, while cAMP binding to ion channels modulates their activity directly. Further studies on cAMP signalling will have important implications, not only for advancing fundamental knowledge but also for identifying targets for the development of new therapeutic agents.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/123835
DOI10.1111/brv.12020
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1111/brv.12020
issn: 1464-7931
e-issn: 1469-185X
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