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Título

Embryonic development of the enteric nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca americana

AutorGanfornina, M. D. ; Sánchez, Diego; Bastiani, Michael J.
Palabras claveInsect development
Stomatogastric
Neurogenesis
Pathfinding
Cell migration
Fecha de publicación1996
EditorJohn Wiley & Sons
CitaciónJournal of Comparative Neurology 372(4): 581-596 (1996)
ResumenThe enteric nervous system (ENS) of the grasshopper Schistocerca americana is organized into four ganglia located in the foregut (the dorsal unpaired frontal and hypocerebral ganglia, and the paired ingluvial ganglia), and two plexuses that innervate the foregut and midgut. A dorsomedial recurrent nerve and two lateral esophageal nerves connect the ganglia. The midgut plexus is arranged in four nerves running along the midgut surface. In this study, we have focused on the embryonic development of the grasshopper ENS; we have studied the proliferation pattern, morphogenesis, and some aspects of neuronal differentiation by using a number of specific molecular markers. The grasshopper ENS develops early in embryogenesis (25–30%) from three neurogenic zones (NZs) located on the roof of the stomodeum. These NZs slightly invaginate from an epithelial placode. The expression pattern of specific cell surface proteins and the analysis of the mitotic activity showed that NZs cells delaminate from the epithelium, become neuronal precursors, divide symmetrically, and then actively migrate to their final position in the enteric ganglia or plexuses. The grasshopper enteric ganglia are composed of mixed populations of cells from different NZs. The foregut and midgut plexuses are formed by the dispersal of cells from the developing hypocerebral and ingluvial ganglia. The main ENS nerves are pioneered by axons extending anteriorly from hypocerebral and ingluvial neurons. The insect ENS exhibits an enormous variation in design. Several features of the grasshopper program of neurogenesis and pattern of cell migration are compared to other insects, and some evolutionary implications are discussed.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/122947
DOI10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19960902)372:4<581::AID-CNE7>3.0.CO;2-0
ISSN0021-9967
E-ISSN1096-9861
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