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Título

Indoor emissions monitoring during tile sintering in a high-temperature continuous laser furnace

AutorFonseca, A. S.; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Francisco, I. de; Estepa, L. C.; Fuente, Germán F. de la
Fecha de publicación2014
CitaciónAEROSOLS 2014
ResumenLaser technology offers a modern tool not yet exploited in ceramic tile manufacturing. The implementation of CO2 lasers on industrial processes is being investigated, such as (i) tile sintering in a hightemperature furnace (continuous laser furnace), currently studied under LIFE project CERAMGLASS (www.ceramglass.eu) and (ii) ceramic materials ablation. In order to characterise nanoparticle formation and emission mechanisms during both industrial processes, quantitative NP levels at the emission source (ES) and the breathing zone (BZ) were studied by monitoring real-time size-resolved aerosol concentrations in the size range of 5 nm - 20 μm. Offline techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to characterize the particles collected and determine their corresponding elemental composition. Additionally, major and trace elements were determined on the collected filters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Six typical industrial tiles were selected and subjected to the standard thermal cycles used at the companies, with peak temperatures of about 1200°C. The tiles were porcelain and red clay and in each case correspond to (i) raw, (ii) frit coated and (iii) frit and decoration coated. The results evidenced that: - NP emissions in terms of mass were 57.6 times higher during ablation than melting process; - The red clay tiles (especially frit coated) emitted higher particle number and mass concentrations in comparison with porcelain tiles during the laser melting process; -The maximum nanoparticle concentration monitored for red clay frit coated tile was 9.7x105 # cm-3 (mean diameter =18 nm) over full sampling 2-hours, at the emission source; - Emissions in terms of particle number concentration from tiles with frit were higher than raw tiles or with decoration (especially red clay with frit which is 3.6 times higher than red clay raw); - Two different emission behaviors were detected, between porcelain and red clay tiles, strongly linked to T and composition; - New particle formation processes (SO2 - induced nucleation) were detected during thermal sintering of the tiles; - Primary nanoparticle emissions were detected during laser melting of the tiles; - Spherical particles originated from fusion were observed by TEM images; - The highest concentrations of potentially harmful metals (mainly Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and As) were found in the ultrafine fraction < 0.25 μm. It is recommended that pre-cautionary and protective actions should be undertaken based on the high NP concentrations recorded during tile sintering using laser.
DescripciónResumen del póster presentado al "3rd Workplace and Indoor Aerosols Conference" celebrado en Wrocław (Polonia) del 13 al 16 de mayo de 2014.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/122443
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