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In vitro leishmanicidal activity of imidazole- or pyrazole-based benzo[g]phthalazine derivatives against leishmania infantum and leishmania braziliensis species

AutorSánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Gómez-Contreras, Fernando; Navarro, Pilar; Marín, C.; Ramírez-Macías, Inmaculada; Olmo, F.; Sanz, A. M.; Campayo, Lucrecia; Cano, C.; Yunta, María J. R.
Palabras claveL. infantum
ultrastructural alterations in trypanosomatids
metabolite excretion
L. braziliensis
Fecha de publicación2015
EditorOxford University Press
CitaciónJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67: 387-397 (2015)
ResumenObjectives: To evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of imidazole-based (1-4) and pyrazole-based (5-6) benzo[g]phthalazine derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Methods: The in vitro activity of compounds 1-6 was assayed on extracellular promastigote and axenic amastigote forms, and on intracellular amastigote forms of the parasites. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed on J774.2 macrophage cells using meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) as the reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed by iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) inhibition, metabolite excretion and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Results: Compounds 1-6 were more active and less toxic than meglumine antimoniate. Data on infection rates and amastigote mean numbers showed that 2, 4 and 6 were more active than 1, 3 and 5 in both L. infantum and L. braziliensis. The inhibitory effect of these compounds on the antioxidant enzyme Fe-SOD of promastigote forms of the parasites was remarkable, whereas inhibition of human CuZn-SOD was negligible. The ultrastructural alterations observed in treated promastigote forms confirmed the greater cell damage caused by the most active compounds 2, 4 and 6. The modifications observed by 1H-NMR in the nature and amounts of catabolites excreted by the parasites after treatment with 1-6 suggested that the catabolic mechanisms could depend on the structure of the side chains linked to the benzo[g]phthalazine moiety. Conclusions: All the compounds assayed were active in vitro against the two Leishmania species and were less toxic against mammalian cells than the reference drug, but the monosubstituted compounds were significantly more effective and less toxic than their disubstituted counterparts.©The Author 2011.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1093/jac/dkr480
issn: 0305-7453
e-issn: 1460-2091
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