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Polarization of the innate immune response by prostaglandin E2: A puzzle of receptors and signals

AuthorsRodríguez, Mario CSIC ORCID; Domingo, Esther; Municio, Cristina CSIC ORCID; Alvarez, Yolanda CSIC ORCID; Hugo, Etzel; Fernández, Nieves CSIC ORCID; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano
Issue Date2014
PublisherAmerican Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
CitationMolecular Pharmacology 85(1): 187-197 (2014)
AbstractEicosanoids tailor the innate immune response by supporting local inflammation and exhibiting immunomodulatory properties. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is the most abundant eicosanoid in the inflammatory milieu due to the robust production elicited by pathogen-associated molecular patterns on cells of the innate immune system. The different functions and cell distribution of E prostanoid receptors explain the difficulty encountered thus far to delineate the actual role of PGE2 in the immune response. The biosynthesis of eicosanoids includes as the first step the Ca21- and kinase-dependent activation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2, which releases arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids, and later events depending on the transcriptional regulation of the enzymes of the cyclooxygenase routes, where PGE2 is the most relevant product. Acting in an autocrine/paracrine manner in macrophages, PGE2 induces a regulatory phenotype including the expression of interleukin (IL)-10, sphingosine kinase 1, and the tumor necrosis factor family molecule LIGHT. PGE2 also stabilizes the suppressive function of myeloidderived suppressor cells, inhibits the release of IL-12 p70 by macrophages and dendritic cells, and may enhance the production of IL-23. PGE2 is a central component of the inflammasomedependent induction of the eicosanoid storm that leads to massive loss of intravascular fluid, increases the mortality rate associated with coinfection by Candida ssp. and bacteria, and inhibits fungal phagocytosis. These effects have important consequences for the outcome of infections and the polarization of the immune response into the T helper cell types 2 and 17 and can be a clue to develop pharmacological tools to address infectious, autoimmune, and autoinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1124/mol.113.089573
issn: 0026-895X
e-issn: 1521-0111
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