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|dc.contributor.author||Gómez Borrego, Ángeles||-|
|dc.contributor.author||Kalkreuth, W. D.||-|
|dc.identifier.citation||International Journal of Coal Geology 77(3/4): 409-415 (2009)||en_US|
|dc.description||7 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables. -- Available online 4 July 2008. -- Issue title: CSCOP-TSOP-ICCP 2007: Selected papers from the 2007 joint meeting of CSCOP-TSOP-ICCP: Unconventional petroleum systems & advances in organic petrology and geochemistry (Victoria BC, Sunday, August 19th to Saturday August 25th, 2007)||en_US|
|dc.description.abstract||Partial substitution of coal by biomass in combustion systems in conjunction with advanced technologies for CO2 capture and storage may result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gases emissions. This study investigates three biomass chars produced from rice husk, forest residuals and wood chips under N2 and CO2 atmospheres using a drop tube furnace (DTF) heated at 950 °C. The char constitutes an unburned residue which has been devolatilized under conditions resembling in thermal history those in full scale boilers. Higher weight losses were achieved under N2 than under CO2 for each type of biomass, and the highest weight loss was that of wood chips biomass, followed by forest residuals and then rice husk. The results indicate significant morphological differences between the biomass chars produced. The wood chips yielded thick-walled chars with a cenospheric shape very similar to those of low-rank vitrinite. The forest residual chars were angular in shape and often had a tenuinetwork structure, while the rice husk chars retained their vegetal structure. Overall, the studied biomass chars can be described as microporous solids. However, in the case of the rice husk, the silica associated to the char walls was essentially mesoporous, increasing the adsorption capacity of the rice husk chars. The atmosphere in the DTF affects the development of porosity in the chars. The pore volumes of the rice husk and forest residual chars prepared under a CO2 atmosphere were higher than those of chars prepared under a N2 atmosphere, whereas the opposite was the case with the wood chip chars. The chars that experienced the most drastic devolatilization were those with the lowest intrinsic reactivity. This indicates a more efficient reorganization of the chemical structure that reduces the number of active sites available for oxygen attack. Overall a similar morphology, optical texture, specific surface area and reactivity were found for the biomass chars generated under N2 and CO2, which is a similar result to that obtained for coal chars.||en_US|
|dc.description.sponsorship||The assistance of Diego Alvarez from INCAR-CSIC in the operation of the drop tube furnace, the preparation of the chars and the SEM study is especially acknowledged. The support of CSIC and CNPq through a bilateral co-operation project is gratefully acknowledged (CSIC 2005BR0054/CNPq 690100/02-7). The Spanish team thanks the Ministry for Education for its financial support through the project PSE2-2005. This study is part of a major research project on the co-combustion of coal and biomass in small and local power genaration generation plants financed in Brazil by CNPq (CNPq 552113/2004-6). W. Kalkreuth thanks CNPq for a personal research grant (CNPq 304991/2003-1). The Guest Editor (Hamed Sanei) and two anonymous referees are thanked for their suggestions to improve the manuscript.||en_US|
|dc.subject||High heating rate chars||en_US|
|dc.title||Characteristics of high heating rate biomass chars prepared under N2 and CO2 atmospheres||en_US|
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