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Elimination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

AuthorsMatamoros, Víctor ; Bayona Termens, Josep María
KeywordsPharmaceuticals products
Personal care products
Surbface flow constructed wetland
Diferent waters
Removal behavior
Suspended solid
Gravel bed
Different sample points
Issue Date8-Aug-2006
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
CitationEnvironmental Science & Technology 4(18): 5811-5816 (2006)
AbstractRemoval efficiency and elimination rates of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were measured in two subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands (SSFs) characterized by different water depths (i.e. 0.3 and 0.5 m) in a 2-year study. Dissolved and particulate phases of wastewater and gravel samples were collected and analyzed. The PPCP influent concentration ranged from 1 to 25 μg L-1. The best removal efficiency was found in the shallower bed SSF due to its less negative redox potential. PPCPs were classified in four groups according to their removal behavior: (i) the efficiently removed (>80%) namely caffeine, salicylic acid, methyl dihydrojasmonate, and carboxy-ibuprofen, (ii) the moderately removed (50−80%) namely ibuprofren, hydroxy-ibuprofen, and naproxen, (iii) the recalcitrant to the elimination namely ketoprofen and diclofenac, and, finally, (iv) compounds that were eliminated by hydrophobic interactions namely polycyclic musks (i.e. galaxolide and tonalide). These compounds were removed more than 80% from the effluent but occurred at high concentrations (up to 824 μg kg-1) in the gravel bed. Accordingly, their elimination by sorption onto the organic matter retained is the predominant removal mechanism. Furthermore, the constructed wetland clogging appears to induce a negative effect in the PPCP degradation in the SSF evaluated. The PPCP elimination classified as efficiently and moderately removed through the shallow bed fitted to either zero- or a first-order areal kinetics. Finally, the apparent distribution coefficients between suspended solids (Kd'ss) or gravel bed (Kd'gb) and water were determined in the different sampling points of the wetland obtaining values comparable to the described previously for sewage sludge.
Description6 pages, 2 figures, 3 tables.-- PMID: 17007145 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Sep 15, 2006.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0607741
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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