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Polar pollutants entry into the water cycle by municipal wastewater: a European perspective

AuthorsReemtsma, Thorsten; Weiss, Stefan; Mueller, Jutta; Petrovic, Mira ; González Blanco, Susana; Barceló, Damià ; Ventura, Francesc; Knepper, Thomas P.
KeywordsOrganic compounds
Western Europe
Polar compounds
Chemical product
Household product
Mass spectrometry
Liquid chromatography
Chemical analysis
Drinking water
Water quality
Surface water
Water pollution
Waste water discharge
Stream discharge
Sewage treatment plant
Urban waste water
Issue Date5-Aug-2006
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
CitationEnvironmental Science & Technology 40(17): 5451-5458 (2006)
AbstractThe effluents of eight municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Western Europe were analyzed by liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry for the occurrence of 36 polar pollutants, comprising household and industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. In a long-term study of the effluents of three WWTP over 10 months, sulfophenyl carboxylates and ethylene diamino tetraacetate (EDTA) were detected above 10 μg/L on average, while benzotriazoles, benzothiazole-2-sulfonate, diclofenac, and carbamazepine showed mean concentrations of 1-10 μg/L, followed by some flame retardants, naphthalene disulfonates, and personal care products in the range of 0.1-1 μg/L. Half of the determined compounds were not significantly removed in tertiary wastewater treatment. By dividing the effluent concentration of a compound by its relative removal in WWTP a water cycle spreading index (WCSI) was calculated for each compound. We propose that this index provides a measure for the potential of a polar compound to spread along a partially closed water cycle after discharge with municipal wastewater and to occur in raw waters used for drinking water production. Polar pollutants in surface water samples of different catchments showed increasing concentration for compounds with increasing WCSI.
Description8 pages, 3 figures, 1 table.-- PMID: 16999124 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Sep 1, 2006.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es060908a
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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