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Foliar and root absorption of Na+ and Cl− in maize and barley: Implications for salt tolerance screening and the use of saline sprinkler irrigation

AutorBenes, S. E.; Aragüés Lafarga, Ramón ; Grattan, S. R.; Austin, Roger B.
Palabras clavebarley
foliar absorption
saline sprinkling
Fecha de publicaciónmar-1996
EditorKluwer Academic Publishers
CitaciónPlant and Soil 180 (1): 75-86 (1996)
ResumenAbove-canopy sprinkler irrigation with saline water favours the absorption of salts by wetted leaves and this can cause a yield reduction additional to that which occurs in salt-affected soils. Outdoor pot experiments with both sprinkler and drip irrigation systems were conducted to determine foliar ion accumulation and performance of maize and barley plants exposed to four treatments: nonsaline control (C), salt applied only to the soil (S), salt applied only to the foliage (F) and salt applied to both the soil and to the foliage (F+S). The EC of the saline solution employed for maize in 1993 was 4.2 dS m−1 (30 mM NaCl and 2.8 mM CaCl2) and for barley in 1994, 9.6 dS m−1 (47 mM NaCl and 23.5 mM CaCl2). The soil surface of all pots was covered so that in the F treatment the soil was not salinized by the saline sprinkling and drip irrigation supplied nutrients in either fresh (treatments C and F) or saline water (treatments S and F+S). Saline sprinkling increased leaf sap Na+ concentrations much more than did soil salinity, especially in maize, even though the saline sprinkling was given only two or three times per week for 30 min, whereas the roots of plants grown in saline soil were continuously exposed to salinity. By contrast, leaf sap Cl− concentrations were increased similarly by saline sprinkling and soil salinity in maize, and more by saline sprinkling than saline soil in barley. It is concluded that barley leaves, and to a greater extent maize leaves, lack the ability to selectively exclude Na+ when sprinkler irrigated with saline water. Moreover, maize leaves selectively absorbed Na+ over Cl− whereas barley leaves showed no selectivity. When foliar and root absorption processes were operating together (F+S treatment) maize and barley leaves accumulated 11–14% less Na+ and Cl− than the sum of individual absorption processes (treatment F plus treatment S) indicating a slight interaction between the absorption processes. Vegetative biomass at maturity and cumulative plant water use were significantly reduced by saline sprinkling. In maize, reductions in biomass and plant water use relative to the control were of similar magnitude for plants exposed only to saline sprinkling, or only to soil salinity; whereas in barley, saline sprinkling was more detrimental than was soil salinity. We suggest that crops that are salt tolerant because they possess root systems which efficiently restrict Na+ and Cl− transport to the shoot, may not exhibit the same tolerance in sprinkler systems which wet the foliage with saline water. ei]T J Flowers
Descripción12 Pags.- 4 Tabls.- 3 Figs.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00015413
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