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Changes in ultrasound-assessed carotid intima-media thickness and plaque with a mediterranean diet: A substudy of the PREDIMED trial

AuthorsSala-Vila, Aleix; Romero-Mamani, Edwin Saúl; Gilabert, Rosa; Núñez, Isabel; Torre, Rafael de la; Corella, Dolores; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina ; López-Sabater, Carmen; Pintó, Xavier; Rekondo, Javier; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio
Olive oil
Diet, Mediterranean
Carotid stenosis
Carotid intima-media thickness
Issue Date2014
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins
CitationArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 34: 439- 445 (2014)
AbstractOBJECTIVE - : The Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) supplemented with either extra virgin olive oil or 30 g/d of mixed nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared with a control (low fat) diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection afforded by MedDiets remain to be uncovered. We assessed the effect of both supplemented MedDiets on internal carotid intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT) and plaque height, the ultrasound features that best predict future cardiovascular events, in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. APPROACH AND RESULTS - : In a PREDIMED subcohort (n=175), plaque height and carotid IMT of 3 prespecified segments (ICA, bifurcation, and common) were sonographically assessed at baseline and after intervention for a mean of 2.4 years. We evaluated 164 subjects with complete data. In a multivariate model, mean ICA-IMT progressed in the control diet group (mean [95% confidence interval], 0.052 mm [-0.014 to 0.118 mm]), whereas it regressed in the MedDiet+nuts group (-0.084 mm [-0.158 to -0.010 mm]; P=0.024 versus control). Similar results were observed for maximum ICA-IMT (control, 0.188 mm [0.077 to 0.299 mm]; MedDiet+nuts, -0.030 mm [-0.153 to 0.093 mm]; P=0.034) and maximum plaque height (control, 0.106 mm [0.001 to 0.210 mm]; MedDiet+nuts, -0.091 mm [-0.206 to 0.023 mm]; P=0.047). There were no changes in ICA-IMT or plaque after the MedDiet+extra virgin olive oil. CONCLUSIONS - : Compared with a control diet, consumption of a MedDiet supplemented with nuts is associated with delayed progression of ICA-IMT and plaque. The results contribute mechanistic evidence for the reduction of cardiovascular events observed in the PREDIMED trial. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.302327
issn: 1079-5642
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