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Performance assessment by a response surface methodology of sliced carrots in a convective system

AutorGamboa-Santos, Juliana ; Soria, Ana C. ; Fornari, Tiziana ; Montilla, Antonia ; Villamiel, Mar
Fecha de publicación2012
CitaciónANQUE-ICCE 2012
ResumenCarrot (Daucus carota L.) is used as fresh or dehydrated in the elaboration of a number of foodstuffs and constitutes an important source of vitamins, fiber and other valuable nutrients. The importance of carrot is reflected by its global production which was estimated at 27 million metric tons in 2004 (Brunke, 2006). Dried vegetables have a predominant position in the market of many countries due to their long shelf-life, volume reduction and product diversity. This type of products are mainly obtained by hot air drying, being temperature, air-flow rate and sample geometry the main parameters affecting the characteristics of the final product (Doymaz, 2004). In spite of the drying benefits, this process may also give rise to irreversible chemical and physical changes in the product (Lewicki, 2006). Among the chemical changes, together with the loss of vitamins, the Maillard reaction (MR), which involves reducing carbohydrates and free amino groups of amino acids, peptides, and proteins, can take place. In this concern, 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids formed at the early stages of MR, have been suggested as sensitive indicators for the detection of changes in the nutritional value and organoleptic properties of several dehydrated vegetables (Cardelle-Cobas et al., 2005; Sanz et al., 2001). These indicators have also been found in carrots submitted to different drying processes such as solar-drying (Rufián-Henares et al., 2008), industrial and laboratory convective-drying (Soria et al., 2009; Wellner et al., 2011) and ultrasound-assisted convective drying (Soria et al., 2010).
ue to the increased consumer's awareness for better quality, safety and nutritional value of foods, drying research has been addressed toward the improvement of existent technologies. Thus, by means of tools such as modelization and optimization of the process, the efficiency of the drying can be improved. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is widely recognized as an important tool for process and product improvement since enables to determine the relationship between the experimental variables and quality parameters and also is possible to maximize the desirability function (Myers et al., 2004). This tool has been applied to the optimization of convective drying of several vegetables, including carrot, however, to the best of our knowledge, the drying kinetic and other useful quality parameters such as MR indicators have not been studied by RSM. In this work, we have investigated the effect of drying temperature and air rate of a tray-drier prototype on the drying kinetics and MR indicators of sliced carrot. At first, we carried out an experimental design using a Central Composite Face Design. Subsequently, to find the optima processing conditions which lead to the best quality of dehydrated carrots, we applied a RSM analysis relating all the studied variables. In general, the range of processing conditions here investigated (40-65¿C and 2-6 m/s) led to moderate changes in the studied parameters, even under the most severe conditions taken from the experimental design. After 6 hours of convective drying, the moisture loss values for most of the assays were within the limits established to guarantee the microbiological stability of the product. Experimental quantification of shrinkage allowed the determination of a first drying period in which the rate of water evaporation per unit of exchange surface area is constant. This constant drying period can be described by a linear regression (R2 = 0.99) of the drying curve. RSM analysis demonstrated that the rate of the first drying period, the moisture loss during first hour of drying and the content of quality indicators can be correlated with processing conditions with high accuracy. Under the assayed conditions in this study, the optima processing conditions to maximize the desirability function (0.77) were 46°C and 4.9 m/s.
DescripciónResumen del póster presentado al International Congress of Chemical Engineering celebrado en Sevilla del 24 al 27 de junio de 2012.
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