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Title

Functional eukaryotic nuclear localization signals are widespread in terminal proteins of bacteriophages

AuthorsRedrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto ; Muñoz-Espín, D. ; Holguera, Isabel ; Mario, Mencía; Salas, Margarita
Issue Date2012
PublisherNational Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
CitationPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 109: 18482- 18487 (2012)
AbstractA number of prokaryotic proteins have been shown to contain nuclear localization signals (NLSs), although its biological role remains sometimes unclear. Terminal proteins (TPs) of bacteriophages prime DNA replication and become covalently linked to the genome ends. We predicted NLSs within the TPs of bacteriophages from diverse families and hosts and, indeed, the TPs of ο29, Nf, PRD1, Bam35, and Cp-1, out of seven TPs tested, were found to localize to the nucleus when expressed in mammalian cells. Detailed analysis of ο29 TP led us to identify a bona fide NLS within residues 1-37. Importantly, gene delivery into the eukaryotic nucleus is enhanced by the presence of ο29 TP attached to the 5′ DNA ends. These findings show a common feature of TPs from diverse bacteriophages targeting the eukaryotic nucleus and suggest a possible common function by facilitating the horizontal transfer of genes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/113119
DOI10.1073/pnas.1216635109
Identifiersdoi: 10.1073/pnas.1216635109
issn: 0027-8424
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