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Evolution and classification of myosins, a paneukaryotic whole-genome approach

AuthorsSebé-Pedrós, Arnau ; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Richards, Thomas A.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki
Eukaryote evolution
Chitin synthase
Origin of eukaryotes
Issue Date2014
PublisherOxford University Press
CitationGenome Biology and Evolution 6(2): 290-305 (2014)
AbstractMyosins are key components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, providing motility for a broad diversity of cargoes. Therefore, understanding the origin and evolutionary history of myosin classes is crucial to address the evolution of eukaryote cell biology. Here, we revise the classification of myosins using an updated taxon sampling that includes newly or recently sequenced genomes and transcriptomes from key taxa. We performed a survey of eukaryotic genomes and phylogenetic analyses of the myosin gene family, reconstructing the myosin toolkit at different key nodes in the eukaryotic tree of life. We also identified the phylogenetic distribution of myosin diversity in terms of number of genes, associated protein domains and number of classes in each taxa. Our analyses show that new classes (i.e., paralogs) and domain architectures were continuously generated throughout eukaryote evolution, with a significant expansion of myosin abundance and domain architectural diversity at the stem of Holozoa, predating the origin of animalmulticellularity. Indeed, single-celled holozoans have themost complexmyosin complement among eukaryotes, with paralogs of mostmyosins previously considered animal specific. Werecover a dynamic evolutionary history, with several lineagespecific expansions (e.g., the myosin III-like gene family diversification in choanoflagellates), convergence in protein domain architectures (e.g., fungal and animal chitin synthase myosins), and important secondary losses. Overall, our evolutionary scheme demonstrates that the ancestral eukaryote likely had a complex myosin repertoire that included six genes with different protein domain architectures. Finally, we provide an integrative and robust classification, useful for future genomic and functional studies on this crucial eukaryotic gene family. © The Author(s) 2014.
DescriptionThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evu013
Identifiersdoi: 10.1093/gbe/evu013
issn: 1759-6653
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