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Title

Latitudinal variation in parental energy expenditure during brood rearing in the great tit

AuthorsSanz, Juan José ; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Moreno Klemming, Juan ; Orell, Markku; Verhulst, Simon
KeywordsDaily energy expenditure
Doubly labelled water
Parental effort
Parus major
Working day length
Issue Date2000
PublisherBlackwell Publishing
CitationOecologia 122: 149-154 (2000)
AbstractThe variation in time and energy allocation of female great tits, Parus major, was studied in five different European populations across a latitudinal gradient. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured in females tending 12-day-old broods. The number of daylight hours used by the parents to collect food for the brood increased with latitude, while DEE and feeding rate per brood tended to level off with latitude. Individual variation in DEE could be explained by variation in ambient temperature (–), the duration of activity period (+) and area, but not by brood size, female body mass, brood mass or feeding rate. When the effect of ambient temperature and the duration of the activity period on the day of energy expenditure measurements were controlled for, female DEE still tended to level off with latitude. Temperature and activity alone can thus not explain the observed pattern. The present study suggests that parents at southern latitudes may be under a time constraint and do not increase energy expenditure because they have no more daylight hours available for foraging, while birds at northern latitudes may be under an energy constraint because they do not make full use of the long daylight period available.
Publisher version (URL)http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FPL00008842
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/110970
DOI10.1007/PL00008842
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