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Combined use of biomarkers and in situ bioassays in Daphnia magna to monitor environmental hazards of pesticides in the field

AuthorsBarata Martí, Carlos ; Damásio, Joana B.; López, Miguel Ángel; Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Miren ; Barceló, Damià ; Riva, Mari Carmen; Raldúa, Demetrio
In situ
Issue DateFeb-2007
PublisherSETAC (Society)
CitationEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(2): 370-379 (2007)
AbstractThe aim of this investigation was to evaluate toxicity effects of pesticides in aquatic invertebrates using in situ bioassays with the local species, Daphnia magna. Investigations were carried out in the Delta del Ebro (northeast Spain) during the main growing season of rice (May–August). Measures of energy consumption (i.e., algal grazing) and of specific biochemical responses (biomarkers) were conducted in individuals transplanted at four stations, including a clean site upstream of the affected area and the three main channels that collect and drain the water from the rice fields into the sea. Seventeen pesticides were analyzed in water by on-line solid-phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The results obtained indicated high levels of pesticides in water, with peak values of 487 μg/L for bentazone, 8 μg/L for methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 5 μg/L for propanil, 0.8 μg/L for molinate, and 0.7 μg/L for fenitrothion. Measured biological responses denoted severe effects on grazing rates; a strong inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases, which are specific biomarkers of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides; and altered patterns of the antioxidant enzyme catalase and the phase II metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase. Correlation analysis with pesticide residue levels converted to toxic units relative to its acute 48-h median lethal concentration of D. magna indicated significant and negative coefficients between the dominant pesticide residues and the observed biological response, thus denoting a clear cause-and-effect relationship. The results emphasize the importance of considering specific (biomarkers) as well as more generalized and ecologically related (grazing) in situ responses to identify and evaluate biological effects of environmental contaminants in the field.
Description10 pages, 3 tables, 3 figures.-- PMID: 17713226 [PubMed].
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/06-209R.1
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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