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Early markers are present in both embryogenesis pathways from microspores and immature zygotic embryos in cork oak, Quercus suber L

AutorRodríguez-Sanz, Héctor ; Manzanera, José Antonio; Solís, María Teresa ; Gómez-Garay, Aránzazu; Pintos, Beatriz; Risueño, María Carmen ; Testillano, P.S.
Palabras claveSomatic embryogenesis
Microspore embryogenesis
Anther culture
DNA methylation
Pectin esterification
Cell wall
Fecha de publicación21-ago-2014
EditorBioMed Central
CitaciónBMC Plant Biology 14: 224 (2014)
Resumen[Background] In Quercus suber, cork oak, a Mediterranean forest tree of economic and social interest, rapid production of isogenic lines and clonal propagation of elite genotypes have been achieved by developing in vitro embryogenesis from microspores and zygotic embryos respectively. Despite its high potential in tree breeding strategies, due to their recalcitrancy, the efficiency of embryogenesis in vitro systems in many woody species is still very low since factors responsible for embryogenesis initiation and embryo development are still largely unknown. The search for molecular and cellular markers during early stages of in vitro embryogenesis constitutes an important goal to distinguish, after induction, responsive from non-responsive cells, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in embryogenesis initiation for their efficient manipulation. In this work, we have performed a comparative analysis of two embryogenesis pathways derived from microspores and immature zygotic embryos in cork oak in order to characterize early markers of reprogrammed cells in both pathways. Rearrangements of the cell structural organization, changes in epigenetic marks, cell wall polymers modifications and endogenous auxin changes were analyzed at early embryogenesis stages of the two in vitro systems by a multidisciplinary approach.
[Results] Results showed that early embryo cells exhibited defined changes of cell components which were similar in both embryogenesis in vitro systems, cellular features that were not found in non-embryogenic cells. DNA methylation level and nuclear pattern, proportion of esterified pectins in cell walls, and endogenous auxin levels were different in embryo cells in comparison with microspores and immature zygotic embryo cells from which embryos originated, constituting early embryogenesis markers.
[Conclusions] These findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation, cell wall remodeling by pectin esterification and auxin increase are involved in early in vitro embryogenesis in woody species, providing new evidences of the developmental pattern similarity between both embryogenesis pathways, from microspores and immature zygotic embryos, in woody species.
Descripción18 p.-8 fig.-1 tab.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-014-0224-4
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